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Typhoid fever

What is typhoid fever? fever?

Typhoid fever, also known as enteric fever, is a infection caused by Salmonella enterica enterica, serovar Typhi. Typhoid fever symptoms are nonspecific and may include:

  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Muscle pains
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Fever
  • A eruption.

the bacterial The cause of typhoid fever is also known as Salmonella typhi and this is shortened to S. typhi.

What are paratyphoid fever and salmonellosis?

Paratyphoid fever is an infection caused by Salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi, and can present similarly to enteric fever.

Both typhoid and paratyphoid fever are examples of salmonellosis, where the infectious agent originates from the mobility genus. bacteria with a gram-negative staining pattern in microscopy, Salmonella.

What are the risk factors for typhoid fever?

Typhoid fever is contracted through contact with infected individuals and chronic carriers typhoid fever (they are in good health but salmonella bacteria can be found in their stool). Salmonella bacteria mainly infect humans and are transmitted through ingestion contaminated food or water. This generally occurs in developing countries with poor hygiene practices, but it can happen anywhere.

How is typhoid fever diagnosed?

Usually people may have recently traveled to endemic areas (Southeast Asia, South America), ingested contaminated food or water, and experienced some of the symptoms listed above. Salmonella bacteria can be found in feces or blood. There may also be an increase in antibody levels observed in the blood.

What are pink spots?

The pink spots describe the rash that occurs in up to 30% of people infected with Salmonella enterica serovar typhi. Characteristically, pink spots are seen in untreated typhoid fever.

  • Rose spots generally occur between the second and fourth week of illness.
  • Groups of 5 to 15 roses pallor papules (small lumps) appear on the previous trunk.
  • The size of the papules varies from 2 to 8 mm.
  • They are generally distributed between the level of the nipples and belly button, but it can also be found in proximal limbs and back.
  • Each lasts from 3 to 5 days.

What is the cause of rose spots?

Rose spots are believed to be bacterial emboli on the skin, in which clumps of bacteria spread through the bloodstream.

  • Salmonella can be grown from rose spots.
  • Emboli are rarely seen on the skin. biopsies.
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Rose spots have also been described in other infections (psittacosis, brucellosis, shigellosis, streptobacillosis, and leptospirosis).

What other skin changes are seen with typhoid fever?

In addition to rose spots, other rashes can arise in salmonella infections.

  • Erythema typhosum - a generalized eruption
  • Hemorrhagic bullas (blisters filled with blood)
  • Pustular dermatitis
  • Erythema multiforme
  • Sweet syndrome

What treatment is used for typhoid fever?

Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection, so it is treated with antibiotics.

However, S. typhi it is commonly resistant to various antibiotics, including trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol, and sometimes quinolones (eg, ciprofloxacin).

Ceftriaxone and Azithromycin appear to be effective.

Can typhoid fever be prevented?

Prevention of typhoid fever is primarily accomplished through vaccination and avoidance of high-risk foods.

Vaccination

It is strongly recommended that travelers traveling to countries at risk, for example South America and Southeast Asia, be vaccinated before traveling. There are two forms of the salmonella vaccine available:

  • An oral vaccine taken in four capsules every other day.
  • One single-dose injection two weeks before travel.

If previously vaccinated, immunity can be verified by blood test. The effectiveness of the vaccine decreases over time. A reinforcement may be necessary.

Hygiene

Good hygiene during food preparation and travel are essential.

  • Wash your hands frequently and thoroughly with hot soapy water, especially before eating or preparing food and after using the bathroom.
  • Bring an alcohol-based hand sanitizer for times when water is not available.
  • Avoid drinking untreated water. Contaminated drinking water is a particular problem in areas where typhoid fever is endemic. Drink only bottled water or canned or bottled soft drinks.
  • Avoid ice, as well as raw vegetables or fruits that cannot be peeled.
  • Brush your teeth with bottled water.
  • Eat foods that have been well cooked and are still hot and steaming.
  • Avoid food and drinks from street stalls.