What is Chediak-Higashi? syndrome?
Chediak-Higashi syndrome is a childhood disorder that interferes with the function of the immune system. Also known as Begnez-Cesar syndrome, White blood cell albinism abnormality or defect in natural killer lymphocytes.
It was first described in 1943 by Dr. Beguez-Cesar.
Who gets Chediak-Higashi syndrome?
Chediak-Higashi syndrome is rare.
- It is estimated that between 200 and 500 cases have been reported worldwide.
- the incidence It is the same in men and women.
- It affects all races, but researchers suspect that its occurrence may be poorly reported.
What causes Chediak-Higashi syndrome?
Chediak-Higashi syndrome is a autosomal recessive condition caused by a mutation about him LIST gene. Often due to parenthood consanguinity. the LIST gene affects the creation and maintenance of storage granules and causes problems with the transport of a protein through cells.
Genetics of Chediak-Higashi syndrome *
Chediak Higashi syndrome
* Image courtesy of Genetics 4 Medics
What are the clinical symptoms of Chediak-Higashi syndrome?
Signs and symptoms begin to affect children with Chediak-Higashi syndrome shortly after birth or before age five.
- Oculocutaneous albinism, or hypopigmentation of the hair, eyes and skin; hair is described as light colored with a metallic sheen
- Prolonged bleeding and easy bruising due to platelet abnormalities
- Frequent viral bacterial and fungal infections
- Nystagmus: abnormal and involuntary eye movements
- Numbness / tingling in the limbs due to peripheral neuropathy
- Poor immunity due to abnormal function and the way of natural killer cells
The onset of Chediak-Higashi syndrome in adulthood is associated with milder symptoms. These may include:
- Skin infections
- Recurrent sinus or respiratory tract infections
- Enlarged lymph nodes
- Gum disease (gingivitis)
- Hyperhidrosis and miliaria
- Fever without infection.
Chediak-Higashi syndrome complications
Most patients (about 80%) will undergo an accelerated phase of Chediak-Higashi syndrome. This phase is marked by the non-malignant reproduction of white blood cells in multiple organs of the body. This accelerated phase can be precipitate by the presence of a viral infection, and is often fatal if it occurs in childhood. This phase is called hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH).
How is Chediak-Higashi syndrome diagnosed?
The diagnosis of Chediak-Higashi syndrome is made by:
- White blood cell test to detect the presence of large granules.
- Light microscopy hair to find pigment agglomeration
How is Chediak-Higashi syndrome treated?
Treatment for Chediak-Higashi syndrome may include:
- Cable blood or bone marrow transplant, which is considered the treatment of choice; it is more successful if it is done before a child reaches the accelerated phase of the disease
- Chemotherapy it is necessary to put hemophagocytosis (the HLH phase) in remission before a transplant can take place
- Avoid exposure to sunlight and sun protection measures.
What is the prognosis for Chediak-Higashi syndrome?
Without treatment, the prospects for Chediak-Higashi syndrome are poor. About 50-85% of children with this disorder will enter the accelerated phase of HLH. This process is fatal without treatment and most patients will die at the age of 10 years.