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Chikungunya fever

What is chikungunya? fever?

Chikungunya is a arthropodmosquito-borne alphavirus. Cause a acute febrile disease accompanied by a eruption, joint pain and muscle pain.

Where does the chikungunya virus come from?

The Chikungunya virus (CHIK V) was first reported in Tanzania in 1952. After the initial outbreaks in Africa and after more than three decades of inactivity, it re-emerged and is currently endemic in various regions of Africa, India, Southeast Asia and the western Pacific. Outbreaks have also become more frequent in the Indian Ocean and Pacific islands nations. [1,2]. There have been no locally acquired cases in New Zealand or Australia; however, travelers can carry the virus after visiting endemic areas. [3,4].

How is chikungunya spread?

The Chikungunya virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito, mainly Aedes aegypti or A. albopictus. Mosquitoes capable of spreading the chikungunya virus exist in some parts of Australia, but are not normally found in New Zealand [3,4].

Rarely, chikungunya is spread through the maternal-fetal pathway, through blood products or organs. transplant [5].

What are the clinical characteristics of chikungunya fever?

The Chikungunya virus generally has a incubation period of 3–7 days (range 1–12 days) [6,7].

The first clinical manifestations are high fever and sudden onset chills, followed by severe polyarthralgia.

  • Classically there are symmetrical involvement of various joints, especially the small joints of the hands and feet.
  • the arthralgia it can persist for several months [6,7].
  • Other common nonspecific symptoms include headache, myalgia, nausea and lethargy.

Cutaneous chikungunya manifestations

A wide range of mucocutaneous Manifestations occur, affecting up to 75% in chikungunya patients during the course of the disease [6,7].

These have been reported mainly during the chikungunya outbreaks in India.

  • A erythematous macular or maculopapular The rash usually appears within the first 2 to 3 days of illness and disappears within 7 to 10 days. It can be irregular or diffuse on the face, trunk and limbs. It is typically asymptomatic but maybe pruritus [6–12].
  • The rash can cause post-inflammatory macules or diffuse pigmentation. Pigmentation is more common on the face, characteristically affecting the nose. [8–12].
  • Painful foot and mouth disease ulcers predominantly involving oral mucous membrane and groin are also common [8–12].

Other skin characteristics of chikungunya may include:

  • A vesiculobullous eruption (most commonly affecting children) [12]
  • Hemorrhagic injuries
  • Peeling
  • A lichenoid eruption
  • Secondary bacterial infection (crust and ulcers)

  • Exacerbation of a pre-existing skin disorder such as psoriasis or lichen planus [8–12].

How is chikungunya fever diagnosed?

Chikungunya fever should be suspected in a patient with acute-onset fever and polyarthralgia when living in an endemic area or after a recent trip to an area where mosquito-borne transmission of the chikungunya virus has been reported.

  • Diagnosis is confirmed by virus detection RNA in Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test or by viral positive serology.
  • Tests should also be done to detect dengue virus and zika virus.

What is the treatment for chikungunya fever?

Chikungunya fever is generally self-limiting and no specific therapy is required or required.

  • Supportive treatment may include rehydration, rest and antiinflammatory or analgesic medication.
  • Symptomatic relief of itching can be achieved with emollientslow power current steroids or calamine lotion.
  • Secondary bacterial infection should be treated with oral antibiotics.

How is chikungunya virus infection prevented?

There is currently no vaccine available against the chikungunya virus. Prevention is mainly based on avoiding mosquitoes (long-sleeved clothing, DEET insect repellents, mosquito nets and mosquito nets) [16].

What is the result of chikungunya fever?

Chikungunya skin manifestations usually resolve spontaneously within several weeks, without the need for specific dermatological treatment. [8.9].

Patients with persistent arthralgia should be referred to a rheumatologist for further study and treatment. [14].