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Zinc supplements to treat skin conditions

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Learn about 7 skin diseases in which zinc supplements could be useful according to different scientific studies.

It is estimated that one third of the world population has a deficit in the intake of zinc, mainly in undeveloped countries. Zinc deficiency is associated with malnutrition and diseases that cause severe diarrhea. In advanced countries, the probability of having a zinc deficiency is lower and is associated with absorption deficit in the intestine, inadequate intake, pregnancy and lactation (1).

Zinc deficiency causes skin diseases such as pellagra or enteropathic acrodermatitis. On the other hand, zinc deficiency has been associated with some inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, Bechet's disease or lichen planus (2).

Despite the strong link between zinc and the skin, little is known about its use as a treatment. The search for therapies anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory has led to the study of the role of zinc supplements in the skin, which is what we are going to review in this text.

Mechanism of action and forms of supplementation

Zinc is a micronutrient, or essential trace element, that participates in enzymatic processes in the body, in protein structures, and regulates gene expression (3). acts in several mechanisms body's immune system, both in innate and adaptive immunity. Decrease the activity of neutrophils, helper T lymphocytes and the expression of inflammation receptors (Toll-Like) in keratinocytes (2).

Regarding the forms of supplementation, a regular intake of zinc in the diet is necessary, since the human body lacks storage systems. Zinc can be supplemented orally in both the sulfate/citrate form and the gluconate form. In the gluconate form, studies use 30 to 90 mg per day, and in the sulfate form, 0.2 to 0.6 grams per day. It can be supplemented in pills, capsules, jellies or gel (1,2).

Zinc supplements: 7 diseases in which they could be useful

1. Viral warts

It is the most widespread indication in dermatology, despite its controversial evidence. Common viral warts are caused by a small group of human papillomaviruses and lack specific antiviral treatment. Destructive methods such as keratolytic agents (“anti-warts”), cryotherapy (liquid nitrogen) or electrocautery are used to treat them.

Warts is the pathology in which oral zinc has been studied the most and there are contradictory studies, some find improvement compared to placebo, compared to others that find no differences (3). The addition of zinc supplements as a treatment for viral warts does not have adequate scientific support.

2. Acne

Compared with placebo, it shows improvement in acne lesions after 12 weeks of oral supplementation. Its effectiveness is less than that of antibiotics. When added to treatment with vitamin A, its effectiveness increases, which is fundamentally in reducing inflammatory lesions, papules, and pustules. It does not seem to have any effect on retentional acne lesions, in other words comedones or blackheads.

Zinc Supplements - Acne

Interestingly, the most common side effect of zinc supplementation in healthy acne patients was nausea, abdominal pain, and vomiting, which in some cases required discontinuation of treatment (2).

3. Atopic dermatitis

Low levels of zinc have been found in the blood, hair and red blood cells in patients with atopic dermatitis. In spite of everything, these findings correspond to studies in few patients and were not related to greater severity in dermatitis (3).

There are two studies on the efficacy of adding zinc supplements to the basal treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis and another one compared with oral antihistamines. They were done in children. No differences were found in one of them and in another the severity and pruritus improved when adding oral zinc (2,4).

4. Diaper rash

In a study in 179 newborns it was found that 89 of them who were supplemented with zinc sulfate reduced the incidence of diaper rash (2).

5. Hidradenitis suppurativa

Studied in three studies, two of them without a control group and combined with other treatments. No improvement was found in the fistulas or in the pain, and in the patients who experienced improvement, a relapse was observed when oral zinc was discontinued. Despite finding clinical improvement in some patients, the study of inflammation markers in the skin of patients with hidradenitis suppurativa treated with zinc increased. Adding doubts to this clinical improvement (5).

The authors, in general, conclude that it may be a treatment to be developed, as a complementary non-pharmacological approach in this pathology that is sometimes difficult to control (6).

6. Psoriasis

It is a fairly old study, it was found that patients with extensive plaque psoriasis supplemented with zinc increased its levels in the skin of the plaques and in the blood. Despite everything, no improvement was found in redness, scaling, and thickness in patients who took it versus those who did not (placebo) (7).

7. Rosacea.

A study in 44 patients found a slight improvement with oral zinc treatment for rosacea, but this was not significant. Some patients even worsened and suffered gastrointestinal symptoms, which led to the premature termination of the study (8).

Zinc supplements to treat skin diseases: conclusions

Oral zinc supplementation may have a anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect theoretically capable of improving some skin diseases.

In spite of everything, even when submitting studies in acne or hidradenitis suppurativa the results could be promising, the evidence for use in dermatology is little and contradictory.

References

1. Roohani N, Hurrell R, Kelishadi R, Schulin R. Zinc and its relevance to human health: an integrative review. J Res Med Sci 2013; 18: 144-157.

2. Dhaliwal S, Nguyen M, Notay M, et al. Effects of zinc supplementation in inflammatory skin diseases: a systematic review of clinical evidence. Am J Clinical Dermatology 2019 [Epub ahead of print]

3. Mahmoodi H, Ghodsi SZ, Tavakolpour S. Cryotherapy plus oral zinc sulfate versus cryotherapy plus placebo for treating common warts: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Dermatol for Women 2017: 20: 87-90.

4. Gray NA, Dhana A, Stein DJ, Khumalo NP. Zinc and atopic dermatitis: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Eur Acad Dermatol 2019; 33: 1042-1050.

5. Dreno B, Khammari A, Brocard A et al. Hidradenitis suppurativa: the role of impaired cutaneous innate immunity. Arch Dermatol 2012; 148: 182-186.

6. Hendricks A, Hirt P, Sekhon S, et al. Non-pharmacological approaches to hidradenitis suppurativa: a systematic review. J Dermatol Treatment 2019; 4: 1-8.

7. Voorhees J, Chakrabarti S, Botero F, et al. Zinc therapy and distribution of psoriasis. Arch Dermatol 1969; 100: 669-673.

8. Bamford JT, Gessert CT, Haller IV et al. Randomized, double-blind trial of zinc sulfate 220 mg twice daily for the treatment of rosacea. Int J Dermatol 2012; 51: 459-462.

Newborn skin care

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Conocer las características de la piel y los cuidados de la piel del recién nacido que se deben seguir según la literatura científica.

A lo largo del período neonatal, la piel del recién nacido se adapta de la vida intrauterina al ambiente externo. El período neonatal, o el recién nacido se refiere a la primer mes de vida.

Los recién nacidos pueden ser en cuanto a la edad gestacional estimada:

• A término, nacen entre las 37 y 42 semanas.

• Pretérmino: nacen antes de la semana 37.

• Postérmino: nacen posteriormente de la semana 42.

Presento estos datos para una mejor comprensión del texto posterior. Primero, describiré cómo se ve la piel del recién nacido y después hablaré sobre el cuidado de la piel del recién nacido.

Características anatómicas y funcionales de la piel del recién nacido.

Barrera cutánea (1,2)

Su función reside en la epidermis, la capa más externa de la piel. La barrera cutánea está totalmente desarrollada en los recién nacidos a término y no se han encontrado diferencias con los adultos en la pérdida de agua transepidérmica. La medición de este parámetro se contempla el “estándar de oro” para la evaluación de la barrera cutánea. Por debajo de la semana 37 y fundamentalmente por debajo de la semana 34, la barrera cutánea no está totalmente desarrollada y se estima que tarda de 2 a 4 semanas en hacerlo. Las áreas de la piel donde la barrera cutánea se desarrolla más rápidamente son las palmas y las plantas, ciertamente asociadas con la capacidad de sudar.

Hidratación de la piel (2)

Los recién nacidos por debajo de la semana 30 disponen la piel más hidratada, ciertamente debido a la persistencia de vérnix caseosa. los vérnix caseosa Es un manto hidrofóbico que recubre al feto en el útero y lo protege de la maceración en su interior.

PH (2,3)

La presencia del “manto ácido” de la piel es necesaria para defenderse de las bacterias y otros agentes. Los recién nacidos, independientemente de su edad gestacional, disponen un pH cutáneo más elevado que los adultos, dicho de otra forma, su piel es más básica. En el período posnatal, el PH disminuye gradualmente hasta ser equivalente al de los adultos entre los días 30 y 90 aproximadamente.

Secreción sebácea (1,2)

En la primera semana posteriormente del nacimiento, los recién nacidos experimentan un incremento en la secreción sebácea, ciertamente debido al paso de hormonas transplacentarias. Después, permanece bajo hasta el período prepuberal.

Sudor (2)

Los recién nacidos a término disponen la capacidad de sudar por el calor y las emociones. Parece que estas funciones se desarrollan a partir de la semana 29.

Flujo sanguíneo (2)

La vascularización completa de la piel, con la aparición de toda la microvasculatura, ocurre posteriormente de dos semanas de nacimiento. La capacidad de responder a los estímulos vasculares de la piel, como el frío o el calor, está presente al nacer, tanto en los recién nacidos a término como en los prematuros.

Estas características se resumen en la siguiente tabla junto con la unidad anatómica involucrada (Tabla 1), para facilitar su lectura (1) y para entender mejor los cuidados de la piel del recién nacido que deben tenerse en cuenta.

Tabla 1. Características anatómicas y funcionales de la piel del recién nacido (Adaptado de: Torrelo A. Dermatología en Pediatría General (1)

Tabla 1. Características anatómicas y funcionales de la piel del recién nacido.

Newborn skin care

Ambiente (2,3)

• Temperatura: un ambiente excesivamente caluroso, fundamentalmente en el recién nacido prematuro, aumenta la pérdida de calor a través de la piel y por tanto el riesgo de hipotermia.

• Humedad del aire: presumiblemente el aumento de la humedad del ambiente reduce la pérdida de agua de la piel y mejora la barrera cutánea. No obstante, en un estudio realizado en recién nacidos prematuros, se encontró que aquellos que fueron sometidos a un ambiente más húmedo tardaron más en madurar su barrera cutánea (4).

Baños (4)

• Bañar a los recién nacidos no se contempla perjudicial, aún cuando elimina la vérnix caseosa que protege la piel al nacer.

• Se recomienda bañar a los recién nacidos a partir de las 6 horas posteriores al nacimiento y en el caso de pretérmino se espera de 4 a 6 días.

• El jabón debe tener un PH neutro y el champú no es imprescindible dentro del cuidado de la piel del recién nacido.

• Se recomienda que el baño dure menos de 5 minutos y esté a una temperatura agradable no superior a 37 grados.

Hidratación (3.4)

• La aplicación de cremas emolientes en el recién nacido reduce el riesgo de dermatitis e irritaciones del pie, fundamentalmente si añaden lípidos, como colesterol, ceramidas, palmitato o ácido linoleico. Estos lípidos ayudan a mantener el equilibrio de la barrera cutánea.

• Su uso en recién nacidos prematuros es más controvertido dado que la barrera epidérmica es inmadura y se ha encontrado en algunos estudios que la aplicación de emolientes en la piel favorece las infecciones en el Hospital.

Cuidados generales (4)

• Las uñas deben estar limpias y cortas.

• Cambios de pañales:

– Usual posteriormente de cada toma.

– Se puede limpiar con toallitas húmedas, que son menos irritantes si al mismo tiempo disponen una loción aceitosa hidratante. Caso contrario, se puede usar agua esterilizada.

– La aplicación de cremas barrera a base de vaselina (vaselina) u óxido de zinc sobre los cambios minimiza el riesgo de irritación.

• Cuidado del ombligo / cordón umbilical:

– El lavado diario y la aplicación de clorhexidina al menos una vez al día durante los primeros 10 días evita el riesgo de infección.

– Debe manipularse con cuidado con la higiene de manos.

– Evite la suciedad en la zona o el roce del pañal.

Desinfectantes para el cuidado de la piel del recién nacido (4)

• La clorhexidina es segura en el recién nacido.

• Se deben evitar el alcohol y los desinfectantes yodados.

Protección solar en el recién nacido (3,4)

• Los recién nacidos no deben exponerse al sol.

• En casos inevitables, es mejor usar un bloqueador solar mineral o físico con factor de protección 30 o superior.

Aplicación de medicación en cremas en el recién nacido (4)

• Se incrementa la absorción de medicación a través de la piel en el recién nacido, se debe tener cuidado con estos tratamientos dado que hay algunos capaces de causar toxicidad.

• Es bien conocida en dermatología la capacidad descrita de la prilocaína, un anestésico ampliamente utilizado en crema en dermatología, para producir metahemoglobinemia en recién nacidos si se aplica en áreas extensas.

References

1. Torrelo A. Dermatología en pediatría general. Aula de Medicina. Primera edición.

two. Flur JW, Darñenski R, Taieb A, et al. Adaptación funcional de la piel en la infancia: casi completa, pero no del todo competente. Exp Dermatol 2010; 19: 483-492.

3. Flur JW, Darlenski R, Lachmann y col. Fisiología de la piel epidérmica infantil: adaptación posteriormente del nacimiento. Br J Dermatol 2012: 166: 483-490.

Four. Afsar FS. Cuidado de la piel para recién nacidos prematuros y a término. Clin Exp Dermatol 2009; 34: 855-858.

Los invito a compartir este post para que otros padres conozcan el cuidado de la piel del recién nacido que se debe seguir de acuerdo con la literatura científica.

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Liposuction without surgery or hydrolipoclasia: This is how this treatment is performed

Non-surgical liposuction, also known as hydrolipoclasia, is a cosmetic procedure that has gained popularity in recent years due to its ability to reduce localized fat without the need for invasive surgical interventions. Below, we explain everything you need to know about this revolutionary treatment.

What is hydrolipoclasia?

Hydrolipoclasia is a non-surgical treatment that consists of the injection of an aqueous solution in the area to be treated , generally composed of water and other substances, with the aim of breaking down fat cells and facilitating their natural elimination by the body.

This procedure has established itself as an excellent alternative for those seeking to eliminate those fat deposits that do not disappear with diet or exercise.

Who is hydrolipoclasia recommended for?

It is ideal for those people who are looking to improve their figure but do not want to undergo a traditional surgical procedure. It is especially effective in areas such as the abdomen, flanks, thighs and arms. However, it is essential to have a professional assessment to determine if it is the right treatment for you.

Hydrolipoclasia procedure

  • Initial assessment : Before carrying out the treatment, it is essential to perform a detailed evaluation of the patient to identify the areas to be treated and determine the amount of solution necessary.
  • Application of the solution : Once the areas to be treated have been defined, the aqueous solution is injected. This stage may cause slight discomfort, but is generally well tolerated by patients.
  • Ultrasound : After the injection, an ultrasound machine is used on the area to help break down the fat cells. This enhances the results and facilitates the elimination of fat.
  • Elimination of fat : Finally, the body begins to naturally eliminate broken fat cells, usually through the lymphatic system.

Advantages of hydrolipoclasia compared to traditional liposuction

  • Less invasive : By not requiring surgery, the associated risks are much lower.
  • Fast recovery : No cuts mean reduced recovery time and less post-treatment discomfort.
  • Natural results : By acting on fat cells gradually, the results tend to be more harmonious and natural.

Advantages of having hydrolipoclasia at Bouret Clinic

If you are thinking about undergoing a hydrolipoclasia procedure and have heard about Bouret Clinic, you may want to know the advantages of having it done at this location. Here we present some of them:

  • Experience and professionalism : Bouret Clinic is recognized for its track record and professionalism. Their team is made up of experts in the field of aesthetic medicine, which guarantees you quality treatment.
  • Cutting-edge equipment : This clinic has the most advanced technology and state-of-the-art equipment, which translates into precise and satisfactory results for patients.
  • Personalized attention : At Bourandt Clinic , each patient is unique. Therefore, you will receive personalized attention from the first consultation, ensuring that the treatment adapts perfectly to your needs and expectations.
  • Comfortable environment : Its facilities are designed to offer a calm and comfortable environment, making it easy for you to feel relaxed and safe during the process.
  • Post-procedure follow-up : It is not just about the day of hydrolipoclasia. The clinic is responsible for offering follow-up after the treatment, to ensure that everything is going well and the results are as expected.
  • Natural Results : Thanks to the combination of technology, experience and attention to detail, Bouret Clinic strives to offer results that look natural, avoiding the “operated” look.
  • Transparent information : Before undergoing any procedure, you will receive all the necessary information about the process, risks, aftercare and any other relevant details. Transparency is key for you to make an informed decision.

Post-treatment care

It is essential to follow the specialist’s instructions after hydrolipoclasia. It is recommended:

  • Avoid sun exposure in the treated area.
  • Do not do intense physical activities during the first days.
  • Use compression garments, if indicated by the specialist, to promote skin adaptation.

As you can see, hydrolipoclasia is an innovative and less invasive alternative to traditional liposuction, ideal for those seeking to improve their figure without undergoing surgery. Being a non-surgical procedure, it offers advantages such as faster recovery and natural results. However, it is essential to have experienced professionals to ensure optimal results.

What you need to know about laser hair removal

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La depilación láser ha llegado para quedarse. La proliferación de centros específicamente dedicados a ello ha popularizado un tratamiento dermoestético que inicialmente se realizaba exclusivamente en un ámbito médico, casi siempre dermatológico. Hoy en día nadie duda de su eficacia y seguridad, siempre que se haga correctamente, pero siempre surjan preguntas:

¿Cuál es la diferencia entre la depilación láser y la fotodepilación?

El uso ha acuñado el nombre de fotodepilación para referirse a la depilación con luz pulsada, diferenciándola de la propia depilación láser. La luz pulsada no tiene las mismas características físicas que los láseres, pero actúa en nuestra piel basándose en los mismos principios. De hecho, ambos tipos de tratamientos son la fotodepilación, ya que usan la luz para borrar el vello.

¿Cuál es la edad mínima para la depilación láser?

No está contraindicado el uso de láseres o luz pulsada a una edad temprana, inclusive en niños. Pero la experiencia demuestra que en personas muy jóvenes, menores de 18 o 19 años, la eficacia disminuye, por lo que son indispensables más sesiones.

¿Puedo “ponerme láser” si soy rubia o pelirroja?

La depilación láser será más eficaz y permanente cuanto más grueso y oscuro sea el vello a borrar. Esto no significa que no tendrá ningún efecto en los cabellos claros, pero será más difícil alcanzar un resultado óptimo.

¿Puedo tener una sesión inclusive si estoy bronceado?

Algunos sistemas de depilación láser usan energías muy bajas que no se queman en caso de tomar el sol, pero tal vez entonces los resultados obtenidos sean algo inferiores. Es preferible evitar la exposición solar previa para evitar cualquier problema.

Tengo lunares, ¿puedo eliminar el vello con láser?

No hay evidencia de que el láser pueda hacer que un lunar benigno se vuelva maligno. A pesar de todo, si dispones de lunares, es recomendable que el tratamiento se realice bajo un estricto control dermatológico para evitar tratar lesiones pigmentadas sospechosas o cuya evolución sea difícil de valorar tras el láser.

¿Los láseres o la luz pulsada funcionan para uso doméstico?

Sobre este tipo de dispositivos se han difundido varios estudios que muestran una eficacia, aún cuando inferior a la de los sistemas para uso médico. Por motivos de seguridad usan bajas energías, que requieren un uso muy repetido para obtener resultados prolongados. Aún cuando se han informado algunos casos de reacciones adversas, de forma general son seguras si se siguen estrictamente las recomendaciones del fabricante. No obstante, el riesgo de utilizar repetidamente estos sistemas sin supervisión médica ha aumentado en áreas donde pueden estar presentes lesiones pigmentadas. En caso de duda, siempre es recomendable consultar a un dermatólogo.

Lo que está muy claro es que el depilación laser Ha hecho la vida más fácil para muchas mujeres y algunos hombres, y está reemplazando cada vez más a los métodos clásicos de depilación. Eso sí, antes de comenzar, averigua bien a quién y cómo vas a hacer el tratamiento.

Effects of resveratrol on the skin

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Know the effects of resveratrol on the skin, as well as its applications, doses and sources where it is, according to scientific literature.

the resveratrol It is a molecule that plants synthesize in response to stressors. This compound exists in two isomeric forms, the trans form is the biologically active one. The cis form arises from the isomerization of the trans form, present in the grape skin during fermentation or with exposure to ultraviolet radiation (1).

It belongs to the group of polyphenols, substances with powerful antioxidant action present in plants. Resveratrol rose to fame as being responsible for the famous “french paradox”, In public health. And the French, despite having a diet rich in cheese, sausages or foie (saturated fats), have the lowest cardiovascular risk in Europe, with a decrease in 40%. This reduction was attributed to a higher intake of red wine in the population (2).

Added to its cardiovascular protective effect is its ability to reduce the risk of some cancers and its neuroprotective effects (2).

Sources, application and dosage

the Natural sources Rich in resveratrol are red grapes, red wine, berries, root of Polygonum cuspidatum Japanese and peanuts. It is used both in oral supplements and in skin cosmetics, due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

the oral dose The acceptable daily resveratrol is 450 mg per day. Taking it as a supplement is safe, well tolerated and non-toxic. It also has an affinity for estrogen receptors, due to its similarity to diethylstilbestrol, and therefore increases collagen production in the skin.

The application of resveratrol in creams It has been shown to be safe, even though concentrations higher than 0.5% can be irritating. Its absorption into the skin is good and it penetrates better into aqueous than oily vehicles. Lipophilic derivatives have been developed to increase their penetration into the skin, such as resveratril (1).

Effects of resveratrol on the skin

Anti-aging and anti-inflammatory oral supplement

In vitro studies have shown that resveratrol is capable of prolonging the life of some microorganisms and in mice. Furthermore, in mice it has been shown that resveratrol protects the skin from the aging process caused by ultraviolet radiation, which we remember, is the majority (80%), rather than chronological aging (3).

In clinical studies its anti-aging properties have also been verified. In 50 subjects, supplemented daily with resveratrol, an improvement in skin elasticity and a reduction in wrinkles was found after 60 days (4). Its anti-inflammatory effect, so far, has only been demonstrated in mice (2).

Anti-aging creams

Resveratrol, applied topically, is a powerful antioxidant and protector of free radicals responsible for skin aging. Its anti-aging properties have been found in several studies.

In a study of 55 women, ages 40 to 60, nightly application of a resveratrol cream was found to significantly improve wrinkles, firmness, discoloration, and skin hydration within 12 weeks (5).

Other subsequent studies have found efficacy with formulas between 0.25% to 4% in creams for about two months of application (6).

Its ability to act, at the same time against ultraviolet radiation, through estrogen receptors, makes its use possible, not only to treat aging caused by ultraviolet radiation, but also to treat pure chronology, the years themselves.

Topical treatment to whiten blemishes

Resveratrol is capable of inhibiting the activity of tyrosinase and melanogenesis genes, responsible for the appearance of skin spots caused by the sun. It is capable of preventing and whitening solar lentigines and melasma (2,6).

Creams to boost acne

Resveratrol in creams is capable of improving acne due to its antibacterial properties, which reduce colonization by Propionibacterium acnes and its ability to reduce sebum production (2). Its ability to reduce acne is 54% with a 67% reduction in comedones or blackheads. This capacity is very similar to that of benzoyl peroxide, without its irritant potential (7).

Skin regeneration

Its topical use has been shown to accelerate recovery after an exfoliation, since it increases collagen production (2). It is also capable of reducing skin irritations and redness and has been used to treat radiodermatitis (radiotherapy dermatitis). In a study conducted on surgical wounds, resveratrol 2% cream was shown to accelerate wound healing (6).

Oral supplement for venous insufficiency

In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, supplementation with red vine (Vitis vinifera) extract was shown to improve leg volume and edema.

Potential use as an anticancer in dermatology

In vitro studies have shown that resveratrol is able to inhibit the proliferation of squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma cells, suggesting potential use in skin cancer (8).

References

1. Chedea VS, Vicas SI, Sticozzi C, et al. Resveratrol: from diet to topical use. Food function 2017; 15: 3879-3892.

2. Ratz-Lyko A, Arct J. Resveratrol as an active ingredient for cosmetic and dermatological applications: a review. J Cosm Las Ther: 1476-4180. Online.

3. Baur JA, Pearson KJ, Price NL, Jamieson HA, Lerin C, Kalra A, Prabhu VV, Allard JS, Lopez-Lluch G, Lewis K, et al. Resveratrol improves the health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet. Nature 2006; 444: 337-42.

4. Buonocore D, Lazzeretti A, Tocabens P, et al. Resveratrol-procyanidin mixture: nutraceutical and anti-aging efficacy evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2012; 5: 159–65.

5. Farris P, Yatskayer M, Chen N, Krol Y, Oresajo C. Evaluation of the efficacy and tolerance of a nightly topical antioxidant containing resveratrol, baicalin and vitamin E for the treatment of mild to moderately photomatized skin. J Drugs Dermatol 2014; 13: 1467-72.

6. Soleymani S, Iranpanah A, Najafi F, et al. Implications of grape extract and its nanoformulated bioactive agent resveratrol against skin disorders. Arch Dermatol Res 2019; 311: 577-588.

7. Taylor EJ, Yu Y, Champer J, Kim J. Resveratrol demonstrates antimicrobial effects against Propionibacterium acnes in vitro. Dermatol Ther 2014; 4: 249-57.

8. Elshaer M, Chen Y, Wang XJ, Tang X. Resveratrol: an overview of its anticancer mechanism. science of life 2018; 207: 340-349.